What are Shariah-compliant investments?

Certain funds cater for the specific investment requirements of followers of Islam.

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  1. Rob Morgan

Shariah-compliant investments are governed by the requirements of Shariah law and the principles of Islam. They are often considered to be a specialist branch of ethical investing.

The rules and requirements of Shariah principles mean that companies involved in certain activities will be filtered out of a Shariah-compliant fund, notably:

  • Conventional finance (non-Islamic banking, finance and insurance, etc.)
  • Alcohol
  • Pork-related products and non-halal food production, packaging and processing or connected activity
  • Gambling
  • Adult entertainment
  • Tobacco
  • Weapons and defence

In addition, there are requirements surrounding the use of debt and interest-bearing assets. Islamic law prohibits the collection and payment of interest by lenders and investors. To earn money without charging interest, Islamic banks agree to participate in a certain amount of profit or loss the business generates.

There are also some generally accepted accounting restrictions in Shariah investing. Companies must maintain a debt to equity ratio less than 33%, which rules out businesses with high levels of borrowing and means a focus on more stable businesses. In addition, companies are only permitted to have less than 45% of accounts receivable as a percentage of debt to equity.

There are a number of global and area-specific indices designed to help direct investors to companies that comply with Shariah investment principles such as those compiled by FTSE Russell and MSCI. They can provide a useful reference point for examples of companies that are considered to meet the principles, and certain funds are based on their composition. These are run on a ‘passive’ basis to replicate the performance of the index.

The investment screening process is comparable to that of ‘negatively screened’ ethical funds using ESG (environmental, social and governance) criteria. However, a Shariah-compliant fund will also have a Shariah board made up of Islamic scholars who decide or check which companies meet the rules. Different funds will have slightly different policies according to the beliefs and interpretations of their advisory board, so investors are advised to consult the fund’s prospectus to ensure it meets their own principles before investing.

As is the case with ethical investments, the extra layer of rules restricts fund managers from certain areas which could enhance or detract from returns over time. For instance, financials such as banks are mostly excluded but are often a large part of broader stock market indices. The outperformance or underperformance of this area would have implications for fund returns. Due to the outcomes of the screening process, there is often a sectoral bias toward healthcare and information technology.

Many funds operating in the area have high minimum investment sizes or are otherwise inaccessible to UK private investors. However, there are some exchange traded funds that are easily accessible and have reasonably competitive charges, for instance:

iShares MSCI USA Islamic UCITS ETF 

iShares MSCI World Islamic UCITS ETF

iShares MSCI Emerging Markets Islamic UCITS ETF 

While the options for Shariah-compliant investments remain somewhat limited at present, the movement towards broader socially responsible investing – whereby increasing numbers of people wish to see their values reflected in their investment portfolio – could see this niche area expand too.

Past performance is not a reliable guide to future returns. This website is not personal advice based on your circumstances. No news or research item is a personal recommendation to deal. Investment decisions in fund and other collective investments should only be made after reading the Key Investor Information Document or Key Information Document, Supplementary Information Document and Prospectus. If you are unsure of the suitability of your investment please seek professional advice.

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